An electroacoustic transducer converts energy from electrical to mechanical. Transducers in general convert energy from various forms. For example a “piezoelectric” (stress electric) transducer converts a mechanical force into a voltage. These transducers can be used to convert speech or music signals into electrical signals for processing or to serve as measuring instruments for acoustic quantities. A transducer can be modeled as a two port network relating electrical and mechanical properties. All of these values are RMS (effective) values.
Various electrical quantities can be transformed into mechanical quantities:
Capacitance<—>Inverse of stiffness
Resistance<—>Mechanical Resistance or Damping
Transducers can be reciprocal or nonreciprocal. Crystal or ceramic electroacoustic transducers are considered reciprocal (Transduction coeffecients for electrical and mechanical are equivalent).
Two major types of electroacoustic transducers are the electromagnetic variety (which use the principle of Faraday’s Law of Induction to stimulate charge flow) or electrostatic transducers which store charge on capacitive plates which then vibrate to create changes in pressure. They can be further classified as “active” (not requiring external power) or “passive”. There are resistive, inductive, capacitive or light dependent transducers. Transducers can be characterized by their frequency response or directivity pattern. For example, a microphone with a circular directive pattern would be seen as “omnidirectional” or equal amplification in all directions. The following is the frequency response of a microphone that appears very flat. This means the microphone is very neutral and does not amplify certain frequencies more than others.