Yagi-Uda Antenna/Parasitic Array

The Yagi-Uda antenna is a highly directional antenna which operates above 10 MHz and is commonly used in satellite communications, as well as with amateur radio operators and as rooftop television antennas. The radiation pattern for the Yagi-Uda antenna shows strong gain in one particular direction, along with undesirable side lobes and a back lobe. The Yagi is similar to the log periodic antenna with a major distinction between the two being that the Yagi is designed for only one frequency, whereas the log periodic is wideband. The Yagi is much more directional, so it provides a higher gain in that one particular direction that it is designed for.

The “Yagi” antenna has two types of elements: the driven element and the parasitic elements. The driven element is the antenna element that is directly connected to the AC source in the transmitter or receiver. A reflector element (parasitic) is placed behind the driven element in order to split the undesirable back lope into two smaller lobes. By adding directive parasitic elements in front of the driven element, the radiation pattern is stronger and more directional. All of these elements are parallel to each other and are usual half wave dipoles. These elements work by absorbing and reradiating the signal from the driven element. The reflector is slightly longer (inductive) than the driven element and the director elements are slightly shorter (capacitive).

It is well known in transmission line theory that a low impedance/short circuit load will reflect all power with an 180 degree phase shift (reflection coeffecient of -1). From this knowledge, the parasitic element can be considered a normal dipole with a short circuit at the feed point. Since the parasitic elements reradiate power 180 degrees out of phase, the superposition of this wave and the wave from the transmitter leads to a complete cancellation of voltage (a short circuit). Due to the inductive effects of the reflector element and the capacitive effects of the director antennas, different phase shifts are created due to lagging or leading current (ELI the ICE man). This cleverly causes the superposition of the waves in the forward direction to be constructive and destructive in the backwards direction, increasing directivity in the forward direction.

Advantages of the Yagi include high directivity, low cost and high front to back ratio. Disadvantages include increased sizing when attempting to increase gain as well as a gain limitation of 20dB.

yagi

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