Previously, we discuss how the resultant wavelength and velocity in an optical system is said to be dependent on the refractive index. What we didn’t explain however is that the relationship between refractive index and wavelength more often involves a dependency of the refractive index according to the incident wavelength. After all, it is easier to change the wavelength of a light wave than it is to change the material that it is propagating through. So in fact, the refractive index will vary according to the wavelength of the incident wave. If the system is not monochromatic, the frequency may also change.
As we know from ray optics or geometrical optics is that the refractive index is used to determine how a ray will travel through an optical system. The relationship between wavelength and refractive index implies that an optical system with the same material will produce a different transmission angle (or perhaps a completely different result) for two rays of different wavelength.
Consider the range of refractive indexes for several different mediums with an altered wavelength and color (i.e frequency):
The differences in refractive indexes for these materials given different wavelengths and frequencies may seem small, however the difference is enough that rays of different wavelengths will interact slightly differently through optical systems.
Now, what if a ray managed to contain more than one wavelength? Or, if it were a blend of all colors? This case is called white light. If white light can contain a sum of a number of wavelengths and frequencies, each component of white light will behave according to it’s relative refractive index.
The classic example of this is of course the prism.