HFSS: Conical Horn Antenna Simulation

For the following simulation, the solution type is Driven Modal. Driven modal gives solutions in terms of power, as opposed to Driven Terminal which displays results in terms of voltages and currents. The units are set to inches.

The first step is to create the circular waveguide with a radius of .838 inches and a height of three inches:


To make the building process easier, a relative coordinate system is implemented through the Modeler window. The coordinate system is moved up to z = 3. A conical transition region (taper) is built at that origin point. The lower radius is 0.838 and the upper radius is 1.547. The height is 1.227. The coordinate system is then adjusted to be on top of the taper.


The “throat” is created by placing yet another cylinder on top of the taper. The height is 3.236. Now, all the objects are selected and a Boolean unite is performed. All units can be selected by using the shortcut “CTRL + A”. From this point, a single object is obtained and name “Horn_Air”. This can be seen in the project tree on the left.


The coordinate system is displaced back to the standard origin and “pec” is selected as the default material (perfect electrical conductor). This will be used to create the horn wall, shown below. A Boolean subtract is performed between the vacuum parts and the conductive portion to create a hollowed out antenna.


Because the simulation is of a radiating antenna, an air box of some sort must be implemented. In our case, we use a cylindrical radiation boundary. The bottom of the device is chosen for the waveport. Upon assigning the two mode waveport, the coordinate system is redefined for the radiation setup. For the radiation, the azimuthal angle is incremented from 0 to 90 in one 90 degree increment and the elevation angle is incremented from -180 to 180 with a step size of 2:


The simulation is done at 5 GHz with 10 as the maximum number of passes. The S-Matrix data is shown below.


As well as the convergence plot:


The radiation pattern is shown for the gain below:


The plot is in decibels and is swept over the elevation angle. Both the lefthand and righthand polarized circular wave patterns are shown at angles phi = 90 and phi = 0. The two larger curves are the RHCP and the two smaller are LHCP.

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