Optical Polarization, Malus’s Law, Brewster’s Angle

In the theory of wave optics, light may be considered as a transverse electromagnetic wave. Polarization describes the orientation of an electric field on a 3D axis. If the electric field exists completely on the x-axis plane for example, light is considered to be polarized in this state.

Non-polarized light, such as natural light may change angular position randomly or rapidly. The process of polarizing light uses the property of anisotropy and the physical mechanisms of dichroism or selective absorption, reflection or scattering. A polarizer is a device that utilizes these properties. Light exiting a polarizer that is linearly polarized will be parallel to the transmission axis of the polarizer.

Circular.Polarization.Circularly.Polarized.Light_Circular.Polarizer_Creating.Left.Handed.Helix.View.svg

 

Malus’s law states that the transmitted intensity after an ideal polarizer is

I(θ)=I(0)〖cos〗^2 (θ),

where the angle refers to the angle difference between the incident wave and the transmission axis of the polarizer.

Brewster’s Angle, an extension of the Fresnel Equation is a theory which states that the difference between a transmitted ray or wave into a material comes at a 90 degree angle to the reflected wave or ray along the surface. This situation is true only at the condition of the Brewster’s Angle. In the scenario where the Brewster’s Angle condition is met, the angle between the incident ray or wave and the normal, the reflected ray or wave and the surface normal and the transmitted ray or wave and the surface normal are all equal.

Picture2

If the Brewster’s Angle is met, the reflected ray will be completely polarized. This is also termed the polarization angle. The polarization angle is a function of the two surfaces.

Picture3

 

 

 

 

 

2 thoughts on “Optical Polarization, Malus’s Law, Brewster’s Angle

  1. Pingback: Jones Vector: Polarization Modes | RF/Photonics Lab

  2. Pingback: Optical Polarizers in Series | RF/Photonics Lab

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s