Acoustics and Sound: The Vocal Apparatus

The study of modulation of signals for wireless transmission can, to some extent, be applied to the human body, In the RF wireless world, a “carrier” signal of a high frequency has a “message” encoded on it (message signal) in some form or fashion. This is then transmitted through a medium (generally air) as a radio frequency electromagnetic wave.

In a similar way, the vocal apparatus of the human body performs a similar function. The lungs forcibly expel air in a steady stream comparable to a carrier wave.  This steady stream gets encoded with information by periodically varying its velocity and pressure into two forms of sound: voiced and unvoiced. Voiced sounds produce vowels and are modulated by the larynx and vocal cords. The vocal chords are bands which have a narrow slit in between them which are flexed in certain ways to produce sounds. The tightening of the cords produces a higher pitch and loosening or relaxing produces a lower pitch. In general, thicker vocal cords will produce deeper voices. The relaxation oscillation produced by this effect converts a steady air flow into a periodic pressure wave. Unvoiced sounds do not use the vocal chords.

The tightness of the vocal cords produces a fundamental frequency which characterizes the tone of voice. In addition, resonating cavities above and below the larynx have certain resonant frequencies which also contribute to the tone of voice through inharmonic frequencies, as these are not necessarily spaced evenly.

Although the lowest frequency is the fundamental and most recognizable tone within the human voice, higher frequencies tend to be of a greater amplitude. Different sounds produced will of course have different spectrum characteristics. This is demonstrated in the subsequent image.

fuck

The “oo” sound appears to contain a prominent 3rd harmonic, for example. In none of these sounds is the fundamental of highest amplitude. The image also shows how varying the position of the tongue as well as the constriction or release of the larynx contributes to the spectrum.

It is interesting to note the difference between male and female voices: male voices contain more harmonic content. This is because lower multiples of the fundamentals are more represented in the male voice and are spaced closed to one another in the frequency domain.

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s