We will consider our study of sound by briefly analyzing the acoustic guitar: an instrument that uses certain physical properties to “amplify” (not really true as no energy is technically added) sound acoustically rather than through electromagnetic induction or piezoelectric means (piezoelectric pickups are common on acoustic-electric guitars however). A guitar can be tuned many ways but standard (E standard) tuning is E-A-D-G-B-E across the six strings from top to bottom, or thickest string to thinnest. The tuning is something that can be changed on the fly, which differentiates the guitar from something like a harp which the tension of the string cannot be adjusted.
Just like the tuning pegs on a guitar can be loosened or tighten to change the tension, the fretting hand can also be used to change the length of the string. Both of these affect the frequency or perceived pitch. In fact, two other qualities of the string (density and thickness) also effect the frequency. These can be related through Mersenne’s rule:
As shown, the length and density of the string are inversely proportional to the pitch. The tension is proportional, so tightening the string will tune the string up. The frequency is inversely proportional to string diameter.
The basic operation of the guitar is that plucking or strumming strings will cause a disturbance in the air, displacing air particles and causing buildups of pressure “nodes” and “antinodes”. This leads to the creation of a longitudinal pressure wave which is perceived by the human ear as sound. However, a string on its own does not displace much air, so the rest of the guitar is needed. The soundboard (top) of the guitar acts as an impedance matching network between the string and air by increasing the surface area of contact with the air. Although this does not amplify the sound since no external energy is applied, it does increase the sound intensity greatly. So in a sense the soundboard (typically made of spruce or a good transmitter of sound) can be thought of as something like an electrical impedance matching transformer. The acoustic guitar also employs acoustic resonance in the soundhole. As with the soundboard, the soundhole also vibrates and tends to resonate at lower frequencies. When the air in the soundhole moves in phase with the strings, sound intensity increases by about 3 dB. So basically, the sound is being coupled from the string to the soundboard, from the soundboard to the soundhole and from both the soundhole and soundboard to the external air. The bridge is the part of the guitar that couples the string vibration to the soundboard. This creates a reasonably loud pressure wave.
In terms of wood, the typical wood used for guitar making has a high stiffness to weight ratio. Spruce has an excellent stiffness to weight ratio, as it has a high modulus of elasticity and moderately low density. Rosewood tends to be used for the back and sides of a guitar. The main thing to note hear is the guitar is made of wood.. because wood does not carry vibrations well. As a result the air echos within the guitar instead, creating a sound that is pleasant to the ear. Another factor, of course is cost.
Strings are comprised of a fundamental frequency as well as harmonics and overtones, which lead to a distinct sound. If you fret a string at the twelfth fret, this is the halfway part of the string. This would be the first overtone with double the frequency. It is important to note that the frets of a guitar taper off as you go towards the bridge. This distance can be calculated since c = fλ is a constant. Each successive note is 1.0595 higher in pitch so the first fret is placed 1.0595 from the bridge. This continues on and on with 1.0595 being raised to a higher and higher power based on what fret is being observed.