Tag Archives: Optics

Ray Optics & Geometrical Optics (Introduction)

Ray Optics

In describing the nature of light, numerous theories have been described. One of the oldest and most simplest of explanations of the nature of light is Ray Optics. In variable contrast to Wave Optics, Electromagnetic Optics or Quantum Optics, the theory of Ray Optics describes light as obeying a set of geometrical rules. Ray Optics assumes that the wavelength of light is infinitesimally smaller than the objects that light “rays” interact with. Ray Optics is also referred to as Geometrical Optics due to the geometrical nature of the understanding of the theory and the manner of calculations involved.


Ray Optics has limitations and does not describe many phenomenon. However, Ray Optics or Geometrical Optics is is useful in determining the conditions in which light travels and is guided within various mediums, such as in relation to a lens, mirror or glass fiber. Optical rays may also be described as vectors which point in the direction of travel of a light ray.


The above diagram describes the relationship between Ray Optics to other important theories regarding the nature of light. Electromagnetic Optics describes light as an electromagnetic wave phenomenon and therefore assesses light using concepts applied to electromagnetic radiation, such as the form of electric field waves and magnetic field waves coupled. Wave Optics approximates this wave phenomenon as a scalar wave. Electromagnetic Optics, Wave Optics and Ray Optics encompass what is known as Classical Optics. To describe the nature of light in a manner consistent with quantum mechanics, the theory of Quantum Optics meets these purposes.


Optics, Optoelectronics, Electro-Optics and Photonics

Optics vs. Photonics

What is the difference between Optics and Photonics? These words are sometimes used interchangeably. A distinction may be made however. Optics, on one hand is a very old subject, whereas Photonics is a term that has only recently been used. Photonics is a word which refers to devices that primarily involve the flow of photons as opposed to electronics, which deals with the flow of electrons. The main inventions that lead to the use of the word Photonics are the laser, fabrication of low-loss optical fibers and semiconductor optical devices. Other terms that are often used to refer to these inventions and their various applications are electro-optics, optoelectronics, quantum electronics, quantum optics and lightwave technology. Many of these terms may be used interchangeably, although some of them refer to specific technologies.

The first figure below may be viewed as an optical system, while the second figure may be referred to as a photonic system. The first figure features a light beam that is modulated, reflected and reflacted through a medium. The second figure is of a photonic integrated circuit device.




Electro-Optics is term for devices that incorporate both an optical and electrical properties, however are primarily optical devices. Examples of electro-optical devices are lasers and electro-optic modulators and switches.



Optoelectronics refers on the other hand to devices that are primarily electronic, but involve light, such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors or liquid-crystal display devices.



Quantum Optics refers to the study of the quantum mechanical and coherence properties of light. Lightwave Technology typically is used to describe optical communications and optical signal processing devices and systems. Quantum Electronics is the study of technology concerned with the interaction of light and matter, such as lasers, optical amplifiers and optical wave mixing devices.

Branches of Optics

Optics is a broad subject that has been studied and renovated over a long period of time. The following is a quick list of the different branches, theories and studies of optics. This list does not cover all concepts related to Optics by any means, however when discussing a topic related to Optics, it will be important to know which type of Optics is being discussed.


Ray Optics

Geometrical Optics

Wave Optics

Electromagnetic Optics

Quantum Optics

Paraxial Optics

Matrix Optics

Classical Optics

Beam Optics

Gaussian Optics

Fourier Optics

Physical Optics

Polarization Optics



Metal Optics

Metamaterial Optics

Transformation Optics

Fiber Optics



Guided-Wave Optics

Resonator Optics

Photonic-Crystal Optics

Statistical Optics

Photon Optics

Spatial Optics


Semiconductor Optics

Nonlinear Optics

Ultrafast Optics

Atom Optics



Interferometry – Introduction

RF/Photonics Lab
Jared Alves
November 2019

Interferometry – Introduction

                Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves are superimposed for measurement purposes. These waves tend to be radio, sound or optical waves. Various measurements can be obtained using interferometry that portray characteristics of the medium through which the waves propagate or properties of the waves themselves. In terms of optics, two light beams can be split to create an interference pattern when the waves combine (superimpose). This superposition can lead to a diminished wave, an increased wave or a wave completely reduced in amplitude. In an easily realizable physical sense, tossing a stone into a pond creates concentric waves that radiate away from where the stone was tossed. If two stones are thrown near each other, their waves would interfere with each other creating the same effect described previously. Constructive interference is the superposition of waves that results in a larger amplitude whereas destructive interference diminishes the resultant amplitude. Normally, the interference is either partially constructive or partially destructive, unless the waves are perfectly out of phase. The following image displays total constructive and destructive interference.


A simple way to explain the operation of an interferometer is that it converts a phase difference to an intensity. When two waves of the same frequency are added together, the result depends only on the phase difference between them, as explained previously.

interferrometry2The image above shows a Michelson interferometer which uses two beams of light to measure small displacements, refractive index changes and surface irregularities.  The beams are split using a mirror that is not completely reflective and angled so that one beam is reflected, and one is not. The two beams travel in separate paths which combine to produce interference. Whether the waves combine destructively or constructively depends on distancing between the mirrors. Because the device shows the difference in path lengths, it is a differential device. Generally, one leg length is kept constant for control purposes.