Tag Archives: Optoelectronics

Heterostructures & Carrier Recombination

Heterojunction is the term for a region where two different materials interact. A Heterostructure is a combination of two or more materials. Here, we will explore several interesting cases.

AlGaAs-InGaAs-AlGaAs

The AlGaAs-InGaAs interaction is interesting due to the difference in energy bandgap levels. It was found that AlGaAs has a higher bandgap level, while InGaAs has a lower bandgap. By layering these two materials together with a stark difference in bandgap levels, the two materials make for an interesting demonstration of a heterostructure.

The layering of a smaller bandgap material between a wider bandgap material has an effect of trapping both electrons and holes. As shown on the right side of the below picture, the center region, made of AlGaAs exibits high concentrations of both electrons and holes. This leads to a higher rate of carrier recombination, which can generate photons.

12Picture2

Here, the lasing profile of the material under bias:

2Picture2

GaAs-InP-GaAs

8Picture24Picture2

 

InGaAsP-InGaAs-InP

A commonly used group of materials is InGaAsP, InGaAs and InP. Unlike the above arrangements, these materials may be lattice-matched. Lattice-matching may be explored in depth later on.Simulations suggest low or non-existent recombination rates. Although this is a heterostructure, one can see that there are no jagged or sudden drastic movements in the conduction and valence band layers with respect to each other to create a discontinuity that may result in a high recombination rate.

inpingaaSInGaAsP

 

Materials & Photogeneration Rate at 1550 nm

We now seek to understand how different materials respond and interact with light. Photogeneration is the rate at which electrons are created through the absorption of light.

A program is built in ATLAS TCAD to simulate a beam incident on a block of material. A PN junction is used, similar to previous iterations. An example of the code for the Photogeration Simulator will be provided at the end of this article.

The subject of photogeneration certainly can see a more thorough examination that is provided here. Consider this as an introduction and initial exploration.

GaAs-InP-GaAs PN Junction

photogen1

Here we see that a cross section of this unintentionally doped InP region, sandwiched between a GaAs PN junction exhibits a level of photogeneration, while the GaAs regions do not.

Adding more layers of other materials, as well as introducing a bias of the structure, we notice that the InP region still exhibits the highest (only) level of photogeneration of the materials tested in this condition. Interestingly, this structure emits light under the conditions tested.

Picture1

Also consider that a photogeneration effect may not be sought. If, for instance, a device is supposed to act as a waveguide, there will be no benefit to having a photogeneration effect, let alone losses in the beam that result from it.

 

InGaAsP-InP-InGaAs Heterostructure

A common set of materials for use in Photodetectors is InGaAsP, InP and InGaAs. This particular structure features a simple, n-doped InGaAsP, unintentionally doped InP and p-doped InGaAs. The absorption rate of InP was already demonstrated above. InGaAs proves also to exhibit absorption at 1500 nm.

ingaasPInPInGaAs

 

go atlas

Title Photogeneration Simulator

#Define the mesh

mesh auto

x.m l = -2 Spac=0.1

x.m l = -1 Spac=0.05

x.m l = 1 Spac=0.05

x.m l = 2 Spac =0.1

#TOP TO BOTTOM – Structure Specification

region num=1 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 acceptor = 1e17

region num=3 bottom thick = 0.5 material = InP NY = 10

region num=2 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 donor = 1e17

#Electrode specification

elec       num=1  name=anode  x.min=-1.0 x.max=1.0 top

elec       num=2  name=cathode   x.min=-1.0 x.max=1.0 bottom

#Gate Metal Work Function

contact num=2 work=4.77

models region=1 print conmob fldmob srh optr fermi

models region=2 srh optr print conmob fldmob srh optr fermi

models material=GaAs fldmob srh optr fermi print \

laser gainmod=1 las_maxch=200. \

las_xmin=-0.5 las_xmax=0.5 las_ymin=0.4 las_ymax=0.6 \

photon_energy=1.43 las_nx=37 las_ny=33 \

lmodes las_einit=1.415 las_efinal=1.47 cavity_length=200

beam     num=1 x.origin=0 y.origin=4 angle=270 wavelength=1550 min.window=-1 max.window=1

output band.param ramptime TRANS.ANALY photogen opt.intens con.band val.band e.mobility h.mobility band.param photogen opt.intens recomb u.srh u.aug u.rad flowlines

method newton autonr trap  maxtrap=6 climit=1e-6

 

#SOLVE AND PLOT

solve    init

SOLVE B1=1.0

output band.param ramptime TRANS.ANALY photogen opt.intens con.band val.band e.mobility h.mobility band.param photogen opt.intens recomb u.srh u.aug u.rad flowlines

outf=diode_mb1.str master

tonyplot diode_mb1.str

method newton autonr trap  maxtrap=6 climit=1e-6

LOG outf=electrooptic1.log

solve vanode = 0.5

solve vanode = 1.0

solve vanode = 1.5

solve vanode = 2.0

solve vanode = 2.5

save outfile=diode_mb2.str

tonyplot diode_mb2.str

tonyplot electrooptic1.log

quit

Conduction & Valence Band Energies under Biasing (PN & PIN Junctions)

Previously, we discussed the effect of doping concentrations on the energy band gap. The conclusion of this process was that the doping concentration alone does not alter the band gap. The band gap is the difference between the conduction band and valence bands. Under biasing, the conduction and valence bands are in fact affected by doping concentration.

One method to explain how the doping level will influence the conduction band and valence band under bias is by demonstrating the difference between the energy bands of a PN Junction versus that of a PIN Junction. Simulations of both are presented below. The intermediate section found between the p-doped and n-doped regions of the PIN junction diode offer a more gradual transition between the two levels. A PN junction offers a sharper transition at the conduction and valence band levels simulatenously. A heterostructure, which is made of more than one material (which will have different band gaps) may produce even greater discontinuities. Depending on the application, a discontinuity may be sought (think, Quantum well), while in other situations, it may be necessary to smooth the transition between band levels for a desired result.

The conduction and valence bands are of great importance for determining the carrier concentrations and carrier mobilities in a semiconductor structure. These will be discussed soon.

PN Junction under biasing (conduction and valence band energies):

pnjunctionbandenergies

Code Used (PN Junction):

#TOP TO BOTTOM – Structure Specification
region num=1 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 acceptor = 1e18
region num=2 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 donor = 1e18

 

PIN Junction Biased:

pinjunction

PIN Junction Unbiased:

pinjunction_unbiased

Code Used (PIN Junction):

#TOP TO BOTTOM – Structure Specification
region num=1 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 acceptor = 1e18
region num=3 bottom thick = 0.2 material = GaAs NY = 10
region num=2 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 donor = 1e18

Here, the carrier concentrations are plotted:

pinconc

Energy Bandgaps

Previously, a PN Junction Simulator in ATLAS program was posted. Now, we will use and modify this program to explore more theory in respect to semiconductor materials, high speed electronics and optoelectronics.

The bandgap, as mentioned previously is the difference between the conduction band energy and valence band energy. The materials GaAs, InP, AlGaAs, InGaAs and InGaAsP are simulated and the bandgap values for each are estimated (just don’t use these values for anything important).

  • GaAs: ~ 1.2 eV
  • InP: ~ 1.35 eV
  • AlGaAs: ~ 1.8 eV
  • InGaAs: ~0.75 eV
  • InGaAsP: 1.1 eV

bandgaps

Here the conduction band and valence band are shown.

bandgaps2

The structure used in the PN Junction Simulator is found below:

#TOP TO BOTTOM – Structure Specification
region num=1 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 acceptor = 1e17
region num=3 bottom thick = 0.001 material = InP NY = 10
region num=4 bottom thick = 0.001 material = GaAs NY = 10
region num=5 bottom thick = 0.001 material = AlGaAs NY = 10 x.composition=0.3 grad.3=0.002
region num=6 bottom thick = 0.001 material = GaAs NY = 10
region num=7 bottom thick = 0.001 material = InGaAs NY = 10 x.comp=0.468
region num=8 bottom thick = 0.001 material = GaAs NY = 10
region num=9 bottom thick = 0.001 material = InGaAsP NY = 10 x.comp=0.145 y.comp = 0.317
region num=2 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 donor = 1e17

Is the bandgap affected by doping the concentration level?

A quick simulation (below) will tell us that the answer is no. What might influence the bandgap however? And what could the concentration level change?

bandgap4

This (above) is a simulation of GaAs with layers at different doping concentration levels. The top is a contour of the bandgap, which is constant, as expected. The top right is a cross section of this GaAs structure (technically still a pn junction diode); the bandgap is still constant. The bottom two images are the donor and acceptor concentrations.

The bandgap energy E_g is the amount of energy needed for a valence electron to move to the conduction band. The short answer to the question of how the bandgap may be altered is that the bandgap energy is mostly fixed for a single material. In praxis however, Bandgap Engineering employs thin epitaxial layers, quantum dots and blends of materials to form a different bandgap. Bandgap smoothing is employed, as are concentrations of specific elements in ternary and quarternary compounds. However, the bandgap cannot be altered by changing the doping level of the material.

PN Junction Simulator in ATLAS

This post will outline a program for ATLAS that can simulate a pn junction. The mesh definition and structure between the anode and cathode will be defined by the user. The simulator plots both an unbiased and biased pn junction.

go atlas

Title PN JUNCTION SIMULATOR

#Define the mesh

mesh auto
x.m l = -2 Spac=0.1
x.m l = -1 Spac=0.05
x.m l = 1 Spac=0.05
x.m l = 2 Spac =0.1

#TOP TO BOTTOM – Structure Specification
region num=1 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 acceptor = 1e17
region num=2 bottom thick = 0.5 material = GaAs NY = 20 donor = 1e17

#Electrode specification
elec num=1 name=anode x.min=-1.0 x.max=1.0 top
elec num=2 name=cathode x.min=-1.0 x.max=1.0 bottom
#Gate Metal Work Function
contact num=2 work=4.77
models region=1 print conmob fldmob srh optr
models region=2 srh optr
material region=2

#SOLVE AND PLOT
solve init outf=diode_mb1.str master
output con.band val.band
tonyplot diode_mb1.str

method newton autonr trap maxtrap=6 climit=1e-6
solve vanode = 2.5 name=anode
save outfile=diode_mb2.str
tonyplot diode_mb2.str
quit

This program may also be useful for understanding how different materials interact between a PN junction. This simulation below is for a simple GaAs pn junction.

The first image shows four contour plots for the pn junction with an applied 2.5 volts. With an applied voltage of 2.5, the recombination rate is high at the PN junction, while there is low recombination throughout the unbiased pn junction. The hole and electron currents are plotted on the bottom left and right respectively.

pnjunction_biased

Here is the pn junction with no biasing.

pnjunction_unbiased

The beam profile can also be obtained:

beamprof

ATLAS TCAD: Simulation of Frequency Response from Light Impulse

Recently a project was posted for a high speed photodetector. Part of that project was to develop a program that takes the frequency response of a light impulse. My thought is to create a program that can perform these tasks, including an impulse response for any structure.

Generic Light Frequency Response Simulator Program in ATLAS TCAD

The first part of the program should include all the particulars of the structure that is being simulated:

go atlas

[define mesh]

[define structure]

[define electrodes]

[define materials]

Then, the beam is defined. x.origin and y.origin describes from where the beam is originating on the 2D x-y plane. The angle shown of 270 degrees means that the beam will be facing upwards. One may think of this angle as starting on the right hand sixe of the x-y coordinate plane and moves clockwise. The wavelength is the optical wavelength of the beam and the window defines how wide the beam will be.

beam num=1 x.origin=0 y.origin=5 angle=270 wavelength=1550 min.window=-15 max.window=15

The program now should run an initial solution and set the conditions (such as if a voltage is applied to a contact) for the frequency response.

METHOD HALFIMPL

solve init
outf = lightpulse_frequencyresponse.str
LOG lightpulse_frequencyresponse.log

[simulation conditions such as applied voltage]

LOG off

Now the optical pulse is is simulated as follows:

LOG outf=transient.log
SOLVE B1=1.0 RAMPTIME=1E-9 TSTOP=1E-9 TSTEP=1E-12
SOLVE B1=0.0 RAMPTIME=1E-9 TSTOP=20E-9 TSTEP=1E-12

tonyplot transient.log

outf=lightpulse_frequencyresponse.str master onefile
log off

The optical pulse “transient.log” is simulated using Tonyplot at the end of the program. It is a good idea to separate transient plots from frequency plots to ensure that these parameters may be chosen in Tonyplot. Tonyplot does not give the option to use a parameter if it is not the object that is being solved before saving the .log file.

log outf=frequencyplot.log
FOURIER INFILE=transient.log OUTFILE=frequencyplot.log T.START=0 T.STOP=20E-9 INTERPOLATE
tonyplot frequencyplot.log
log off

output band.param ramptime TRANS.ANALY photogen opt.intens con.band val.band e.mobility h.mobility band.param photogen opt.intens recomb u.srh u.aug u.rad flowlines

save outf=lightpulse_frequencyresponse.str
tonyplot lightpulse_frequencyresponse.str

quit

Now you can focus on the structure and mesh for a light impulse frequency response. Note that adjustments may be warranted on the light impulse and beam.

And so, here is a structure simulation that could be done easily using the process above.

trr

 

High Speed UTC Photodetector Simulation with Frequency Response in TCAD

The following is a TCAD simulation of a high speed UTC photodetector. An I-V curve is simulated for the photodetector, forward and reverse. A light beam is simulated to enter the photodetector. The photo-current response to a light impulse is simulated, followed by a frequency response in TCAD.

Structure:

121

I-V Curve

1211

Beam Simulation Entering Photodetector:

12111

 

Light Impulse:

121111

Frequency Response in ATLAS:

1211111

The full project (pdf) is here: ece530_final_mbenker

 

LED Simulation in Atlas

This post features an LED structure simulated in ATLAS. The goal will be to demonstrate why this structure may be considered an LED. Light Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes both serve as electronic-to-photonic transducers. Of importance to the operation of LEDs is the radiative recombination rate.

The following LED structure is built using the following layers (top-down):

  • GaAs: 0.5 microns, p-type: 1e15
  • AlGaAs: 0.5 microns, p-type: 1e15, x=0.35
  • GaAs: 0.1 microns, p-type: 1e15, LED
  • AlGaAs: 0.5 microns, n-type: 1e18, x=0.35
  • GaAs: 2.4 microns, n-type: 1e18

This structure uses alternating GaAs and AlGaAs layers.

 

06_0106_02

Bragg Gratings

Bragg gratings are commonly used in optical fibers. Generally, an optical fiber has a relatively constant refractive index throughout. With a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grading) the refractive index is varied periodically within the core of the fiber. This can allow certain wavelengths to be reflected while all others are transmitted.

spec

The typical spectral response is shown above. It is clear that only a specific wavelength is reflected, while all others are transmitted. Bragg Gratings are typically only used in short lengths of the optical fiber to create a sort of optical filter. The only wavelength to be reflected is the one that is in phase with the Bragg grating distribution.

A typical usage of a Bragg Grating is for optical communications as a “notch filter”, which is essentially a band stop filter with a very high Quality factor, giving it a very narrow range of attenuated frequencies. These fibers are generally single mode, which features a very narrow core that can only support one mode as opposed to a wider multimode fiber, which can suffer from greater modal distortion.

The “Bragg Wavelength” can be calculated by the equation:

λ = 2n∧

where n is the refractive index and ∧ is the period of the bragg grating. This wavelength can also be shifted by stretching the fiber or exposing it to varying temperature.

These fibers are typically made by exposing the core to a periodic pattern of intense laser light which permanently increases the refractive index periodically. This phenomenon is known as “self focusing” which is when refractive index can be permanently changed by extreme electromagnetic radiation.

 

Photodetectors and Dark Current

A photodetector simply is a device that converts light energy to an electrical current. These devices are very much similar to lasers, although they are designed to operate in reverse bias. “Dark current” is a term that originates from this reverse bias condition. When you reverse bias any diode, there is some leakage current which is appropriately named reverse bias leakage current. For photsensitive devices, it is called dark current because there is no light absorption involved. The main cause of this current is random generation of electrons and holes in the depletion region. Ideally, this dark current is minimal (<< 1).

1

The basic structure of the photodiode is the “PIN” structure, similar to a semiconductor laser diode. An intrinsic (undoped) region occurs between the P-doped and N-doped region.  Although PIN diodes are poor rectifiers, they are much better suited for high speed, high frequency applications due to the high level injection process. The wide intrinsic region provides a lowered capacitance at high frequencies. For photodetectors, the process is photon energy being absorbed into the depletion region, causing an electron hole pair to be created when the electron moves to a higher energy level (from valence to conduction band). This is what causes an electrical current to be created from light.

Photodetectors are “photoconductive”. That is, conductivity changes with applied light. Like amplifiers and other devices, photodetectors have “Figures of Merit” which signify characteristics of the device. These will be briefly examined

Quantum Efficiency

Quantum efficiency refers to the number of carriers generated per photon. It is normally denoted by η. It can also be stated as carrier flux/incident photon flux. Sometimes anti-reflection coatings are applied to photodetectors to increase QE.

Responsivity

Responsivity is closely related to the QE (quantum efficiency). The units are amperes/watt. It can also be known as “input-out gain” of any photosensitive or detective device. For amplifiers this is known as “gain”. Responsivity can be increased by maximizing the quantum efficiency.

Response Time

This is the time required for the photodiode to increase its output from 10% to 90% of final output level.

Noise Equivalent power

This value corresponds to units of Watts/sqrt(Hz). It is another measure of sensitivity of the device in terms of power that gives a signal to noise ratio of one hertz per output bandwidth, Small NEP is due to increased sensitivity of the device.

Carrier Recombination

Carrier recombination is an effect in which electrons and holes (carriers) interract with each other in a way in which both particles are eliminated. The energy given off in this process is related to the difference between the energy of the initial and final state of the electron that is moved during this process. Recombination can be stimulated by temperature changes, exposure to light or electric fields. Radiative recombination occurs when a photon is emitted in the process. Non-radiative recombination occurs when a phonon (quanta of lattice vibrations) is given off rather than a photon. A special case known as “Auger recombination” causes kinetic energy to be transferred to another electron.

1

Band to band recombination occurs when an electron moves from one band to another. In thermal equilibrium, the carrier generation rate is equal to the recombination rate. This type of recombination is dependent on carrier density. In a direct bandgap material, this will radiate a photon.

An atom of a different type of defect in the material can form “traps” which can contain one electron when the particle falls into it. Essentially, trap assisted recombination is a two step transitional process as opposed to the one step band to band transition. This is sometimes known as R-G center recombination. A two step recombination is known as “Shockley Read Hall” recombination. This is typically indirect recombinaton, which emits lattice vibrations rather than light.

The final type is Auger Recombination caused by collisions. These collisions between carriers transfer motional energy to another particle. One of the main reasons why this is distinct from the other two types is that this transfer of energy also causes a change in the recombination rate. Like the previous type, this tends to be non radiative.

A distinction should be made for band-to-band recombination between stimulated and spontaneous emission. Spontaneous emission is not started by a photon, but rather due to temperature or some other means (sometimes called luminescence). As stated in a previous post, stimulated emission is what emits coherent light in lasers, however spontaneous emission is responsible for most light emission in general.

Rayleigh Scattering

Rayleigh scattering is an effect of the scattering of light or electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller in size than the wavelength. For example, when sunlight emits photons which enter the earth’s atmosphere, scattering occurs. The average wavelength for sunlight is around 500nm, which is in the visible light spectrum. However, it is known that the sunlight also emits Infrared waves and of course, ultraviolet radition. Interestingly enough, Rayleigh scattering influences the color of the sky due to diffuse sky radiation.

The reason why a huge wavelength (compare 400 nm with nitrogen and oxygen molecules which are only hundreds of picometers) can scatter on a small particle is because of electromagnetic interractions. When the nitrogen/oxygen molecules vibrate at a certain frequency, the photons interract and vibrate at the same frequency. The molecule essential absorbs and reradiates the energy, scattering it. Because the horizontal direction is the primary direction of vibration, the air scatters the sunlight. The polarization is dependent on the direction of the incoming sunlight. The intensity is proportional to the inverse of the wavelength to the fourth power. The shorter the wavelength, the more scattering. This can explain why the sky is blue because blue is more likely scattered by Raleigh scattering due to higher frequency (smaller wavelength). It is not dark blue because other wavelengths are also scattered, but much less so.

emagspec

Rayleigh Scattering is quite important in optical fibers. Because the silica glass have microscopic differences in the refractive index within the material, Rayleigh scattering occurs which leads to losses. The following coefficient determines the scattering.

scattering

The equation shows that the scattering coefficient is proportional to isothermal compressibility (β), photoelastic coeffecient, the refractive index  as well as fictive Temperatue and is inversely proportional to the wavelength.

Rayleigh scattering accounts for 96% of attenuation in optical fibers. In a perfectly pure fiber, this would not occur. The scattering centers are typically atoms or molecules, so in comparison to the wavelength they are quite small. The Rayleigh scattering sets the lower limit for propagation loss. In low loss fibers, the attenuation is close to the Rayleigh scattering level, such as in Silica Fibers optimized for long distance propagation.

Pseudomorphic HEMT

The Pseudomorphic HEMT makes up the majority of High Electron Mobility Transistors, so it is important to discuss this typology. The pHEMT differentiates itself in many ways including its increased mobility and distinct Quantum well shape. The basic idea is to create a lattice mismatch in the heterostructure.

A standard HEMT is a field effect transistor formed through a heterostructure rather than PN junctions. This means that the HEMT is made up of compound semiconductors instead of traditional silicon FETs (MOSFET). The heterojunction is formed when two different materials with different band gaps between valence and conduction bands are combined to form a heterojunction. GaAs (with a band gap of 1.42eV) and AlGaAs (with a band gap of 1.42 to 2.16eV) is a common combination. One advantage that this typology has is that the lattice constant is almost independent of the material composition (fractions of each element represented in the material). An important distinction between the MESFET and the HEMT is that for the HEMT, a triangular potential well is formed which reduces Coloumb Scattering effects. Also, the MESFET modulates the thickness of the inversion layer while keeping the density of charge carriers constant. With the HEMT, the opposite is true. Ideally, the two compound semiconductors grown together have the same or almost similar lattice constants to mitigate the effects of discontinuities. The lattice constant refers to the spacing between the atoms of the material.

However, the pseudomorphic HEMT purposely violates this rule by using an extremely thin layer of one material which stretches over the other. For example, InGaAs can be combined with AlGaAs to form a pseudomorphic HEMT. A huge advantage of the pseudomorphic typology is that there is much greater flexibility when choosing materials. This provides double the maximum density of the 2D electron gas (2DEG). As previously mentioned, the field mobility also increases. The image below illustrates the band diagram of this pHEMT. As shown, the discontinuity between the bandgaps of InGaAs and AlGaAs is greater than between AlGaAs and GaAs. This is what leads to the higher carrier density as well as increased output conductance. This provides the device with higher gain and high current for more power when compared to traditional HEMT.

1

The 2DEG is confined in the InGaAs channel, shown below. Pulse doping is generally utilized in place of uniform doping to reduce the effects of parasitic current. To increase the discontinuity Ec, higher Indium concentrations can be used which requires that the layer be thinner. The Indium content tends to be around 15-25% to increase the density of the 2DEG.

1

E-K Diagrams

As previously concluded, solids can be characterized based on energy band diagrams. A conductor has a valence and conduction bands that are very close or overlap. In addition a conductor will have a completely filled valence band and an almost full conduction band. The “forbidden region of the conductor is very small and little energy is required for an electron to move from conduction to valence band. In the presence of an external field, it is very easy for electrons to move from the valence band to the conduction band.

For semiconductors, at absolute zero the valence band is also completely full and the bandgap is typically about 1eV to 3eV, however even a bandgap of .1eV could be considered a semiconductor. Therefore, a semiconductor at 0K is an insulator. Semiconductors are very temperature sensitive. The subsequent figure illustrates the temperature dependence. The resistivity is very high at absolute zero, making the semiconductor behave like an insulator. However at higher temperatures the semiconductor can become quite conductive. At room temperature (300k), the semiconductor behaves more like a conductor.

temp_semi

With band diagrams, not much information is given therefore it is necessary to also analyze an E-K (Energy momentum) diagram. E is the energy require for an electron to traverse the bandgap. For example in Silicon with a bandgap of 1.1eV, it would take an energy level of 1.1eV for an electron to move from conduction to valence band. Energy is given as E = kT where T is a given temperature.

For intrinsic semiconductors like Silicon, the structure is crystalline and periodic. The wavefunction (which describes probability of finding an electron) should therefore be of periodic nature (sinusoidal). From the Schrodinger equation, it can be found that the Energy is periodic with k as well. For the diagrams, E is plotted against k.

ek

The borders of the first Brillouin zone are from -π/a to π/a. These are cells of the crystalline lattice. Since the wavefunction is periodic, we only care about one of the zones. The above figure can be considered the “reduced zone” figure. Sometimes the x axis is given as the moment or wavenumber, since these only differ by a factor of Planck’s constant. From this diagram: the bandgap energy is shown, the effective mass of electrons and holes are shown as well as the density of states. The effective mass is shown by the curvature of the bands. For example, a heavy hole band could be found by observing the diagram that is less curved. From the above diagram, it is also noticeable that the material is direction bandgap (such as GaAs). The basic energy gap diagram compares to the E-k diagram in that the maximums and minimums correspond. However, the original band gap diagram does not give any other characteristics. It is for this reason the E-k diagram is so useful.

High Speed Waveguide UTC Photodetector I-V Curve (ATLAS Simulation)

The following project uses Silvaco TCAD semiconductor software to build and plot the I-V curve of a waveguide UTC photodetector. The design specifications including material layers are outlined below.

Simulation results

The structure is shown below:

3

analyzeband

Forward Bias Curve:

2

Negative Bias Curve:

1

Current Density Plot:

5

Acceptor and Donor Concentration Plot:

4

Bandgap, Conduction Band and Valence Band Plots:

6

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

Construct an Atlas model for a waveguide UTC photodetector. The P contact is on top of layer R5, and N contact is on layer 16. The PIN diode’s ridge width is 3 microns. Please find: The IV curve of the photodetector (both reverse biased and forward bias).

The material layers and ATLAS code is shown in the following PDF: ece530proj1_mbenker